NCLEX Prep for Psychosocial Integrity (ANSWERS & RATIONALE)

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1. B. Clients with anorexia can refuse food to the point of cardiac damage. Tube feedings and I.V. infusions are ordered to prevent such damage. The nurse is informing her of her treatment options

2. C. Frequent vomiting causes tenderness and swelling of the parotid glands. The reduced metabolism that occurs with severe weight loss produces bradycardia and cold extremities. Soft, downlike hair (called lanugo) may cover the extremities, shoulders, and face of an anorexic client.

3. A. Checking the client frequently but at irregular intervals prevents the client from predicting when observation will take place and altering behavior in a misleading way at these times.

4. C. The crucial phase is marked by physical dependence. The prealcoholic phase is characterized by drinking to medicate feelings and for relief from stress. The early phase is characterized by sneaking drinks, blackouts, rapidly gulping drinks, and preoccupation with alcohol. The chronic phase is characterized by emotional and physical deterioration.

5. C. Establishing a consistent eating plan and monitoring the client’s weight are important for this disorder. The family should be included in the client’s care. The client should be monitored during meals — not given privacy. Exercise must be limited and supervised.

6. C. Small circular burns on a child’s back are no accident and may be from cigarettes. Toddlers are injury prone because of their developmental stage, and falls are frequent because of their unsteady gait; head injuries aren’t uncommon. A small area of ecchymosis isn’t suspicious in this age-group.

7. C. Manifestations of alcoholic hallucinosis are best treated by providing a quiet environment to reduce stimulation and administering prescribed central nervous system depressants in dosages that control symptoms without causing oversedation. Although bed rest is indicated, restraints are unnecessary unless the client poses a danger to himself or others. Also, restraints may increase agitation and make the client feel trapped and helpless when hallucinating. Offering juice is appropriate, but measuring blood pressure every 15 minutes would interrupt the client’s rest. To avoid overstimulating the client, the nurse should check blood pressure every 2 hours.

8. A. An amphetamine is a nervous system stimulant that is subject to abuse because of its ability to produce wakefulness and euphoria. An overdose increases tension and irritability.

9. B. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by self-imposed starvation with subsequent emaciation, nutritional deficiencies, and atrophic and metabolic changes. Typically, the client is hypotensive and dehydrated. Depending on the severity of the disorder, anorexic clients are at risk for circulatory collapse (indicated by hypotension), dehydration, and death. Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by self-induced vomiting. Although depression may be accompanied by weight loss, it isn’t characterized by a body image disturbance or the intense fear of obesity seen in anorexia nervosa. Schizophrenia may cause bizarre eating patterns, but it rarely causes the full syndrome of anorexia nervosa.

10. B. The highest priority for a client who has ingested PCP is meeting safety needs of the client as well as the staff. Drug effects are unpredictable and prolonged, and the client may lose control easily. After safety needs have been met, the client’s physical, psychosocial, and medical needs can be met.

11. B. Acute withdrawal symptoms from alcohol may begin 6 hours after the client has stopped drinking and peak 1 to 2 days later. Delirium tremens may occur 2 to 4 days — even up to 7 days — after the last drink.

12. C. The best choice for preventing or treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms is lorazepam, a benzodiazepine. Clozapine and thiothixene are antipsychotic agents, and lithium carbonate is an antimanic agent; these drugs aren’t used to manage alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

13. D. This client requires a vasodilator, such as nifedipine, to treat hypertension, and a beta-adrenergic blocker, such as esmolol, to reduce the heart rate. Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic, isn’t indicated because the client doesn’t have an arrhythmia. Although nitroglycerin may be used to treat coronary vasospasm, it isn’t the drug of choice in hypertension.

14. C. The substance abuser uses the substance to cope with feelings and may deny the abuse. Asking if the client is upset about the meetings encourages the client to identify and deal with feelings instead of covering them up.

15. D. A client with anorexia nervosa has an unrealistic body image that causes consumption of little or no food. Therefore, the client needs assistance with making decisions about health. Instead of protecting the client’s health, options A, B, and C may serve to make the client defensive and more entrenched in her unrealistic body image.

16. C. Emergency department personnel should use an organized, team approach when restraining violent clients so that no one is injured in the process. The leader, located at the client’s head, should take charge; four staff members are required to hold and restrain the limbs. For safety reasons, restraints should be fastened to the bed frame instead of the side rails. For quick release, loops should be used instead of knots.

17. C. The first of the “Twelve Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous” is admitting that an individual is powerless over alcohol and that life has become unmanageable. Although Alcoholics Anonymous promotes total abstinence, a client will still be accepted if he drinks. A physician referral isn’t necessary to join. New members are assigned a support person who may be called upon when the client has the urge to drink.

18. A. Because the client with anorexia nervosa may discard food or induce vomiting in the bathroom, the nurse should provide one-on-one supervision during meals and for 1 hour afterward. The nurse should set limits and let the client know what is expected.

19. B. Phencyclidine is an anesthetic with severe psychological effects. It blocks the reuptake of dopamine and directly affects the midbrain and thalamus. Nystagmus and ataxia are common physical findings of PCP use. Dilated pupils are evidence of LSD ingestion. Paranoia and altered mood occur with both PCP and LSD ingestion.

20. C. A characteristic behavior of abused children is lack of crying when they undergo a painful procedure or are examined by a health care professional. Therefore, the nurse should suspect child abuse. Crying throughout the examination, pulling away from the physician, and not making eye contact with the nurse are normal behaviors for preschoolers.

21. B. The health care worker who witnesses this scene must take precautions to ensure personal as well as client safety, but shouldn’t attempt to manage a physically aggressive person alone. Therefore, the first priority is to call a security guard and another staff member. After doing this, the health care worker should inform the husband what is expected, speaking in concise statements and maintaining a firm but calm demeanor. This approach makes it clear that the health care worker is in control and may diffuse the situation until the security guard arrives. Telling the husband to leave would probably be ineffective because of his agitated and irrational state. Exploring his anger doesn’t take precedence over safeguarding the client and staff.

22. A. An adult who throws temper tantrums, such as this one, is displaying regressive behavior, or behavior that is appropriate at a younger age. In projection, the client blames someone or something other than the source. In reaction formation, the client acts in opposition to his feelings. In intellectualization, the client overuses rational explanations or abstract thinking to decrease the significance of a feeling or event.

23. C. The predominant behavioral characteristic of the client with borderline personality disorder is impulsiveness, especially of a physically self-destructive sort. The observation that the client has scratched wrists doesn’t substantiate the other options.

24. D. Denial is an unconscious defense mechanism in which emotional conflict and anxiety are avoided by refusing to acknowledge feelings, desires, impulses, or external facts that are consciously intolerable. Withdrawal is a common response to stress, characterized by apathy. Logical thinking IS the ability to think rationally and make responsible decisions, which would lead the client to admitting the problem and seeking help. Repression is suppressing past events from the consciousness because of guilty association.

25. A. Studies of those who commit suicide reveal the following high-risk groups: adolescents; men over age 45; persons who have made previous suicide attempts; divorced, widowed, and separated persons; professionals, such as physicians, dentists, and attorneys; students; unemployed persons; persons who are depressed, delusional, or hallucinating; alcohol or substance abusers; and persons who live in urban areas. Although more women attempt suicide than men, they typically choose less lethal means and therefore are less likely to succeed in their attempts.

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