1. B. Arteries, not veins, supply the coronary arteries with oxygen and other nutrients. Atherosclerosis is a direct result of plaque formation in the artery. Hardened vessels can’t dilate properly and, therefore, constrict blood flow.
2. D. A paradoxical pulse (a palpable decrease in pulse amplitude on quiet inspiration) signals pericardial tamponade, a complication of CABG surgery. Left-sided heart failure can cause pulsus alternans (pulse amplitude alternation from beat to beat, with a regular rhythm). Aortic regurgitation may cause bisferious pulse (an increased arterial pulse with a double systolic peak). Complete heart block may cause a bounding pulse (a strong pulse with increased pulse pressure).
3. C. Check with Dani if you have issues with this problem.
4. C. The pulmonary artery pressures are used to assess the heart’s ability to receive and pump blood. The pulmonary capillary wedge pressure reflects the left ventricle end-diastolic pressure and guides the physician in determining fluid management for the client. The degree of coronary artery stenosis is assessed during a cardiac catherization. The peripheral arterial pressure is assessed with an arterial line.
5. A. In an immobilized client, calcium leaves the bone and concentrates in the ECF fluid. When a large amount of calcium passes through the kidneys, calcium can precipitate and form calculi. Nursing interventions that help prevent calculi include ensuring a liberal fluid intake (unless contraindicated). A diet rich in acid should be provided to keep the urine acidic, which increases the solubility of calcium. Preventing constipation is not associated with excessive calcium excretion. Limiting foods rich in calcium, such as dairy products, will help on preventing renal calculi.
6. A. An expected outcome of surgery is warmth, redness, and edema in the surgical extremity because of increased blood flow.
7. A. Temperatures of 102*F or greater lead to an increased metabolism and cardiac workload.
8. C. Blood samples from the right atrium, right ventricle, and pulmonary artery would all be about the same with regard to oxygen concentration. Such blood contains slightly less oxygen than does systemic arterial blood.
9. D. The catheter is placed in the pulmonary artery. Information regarding left ventricular function is obtained when the catheter balloon is inflated.
10. D. The client is up more at home, so dependent edema usually increases. Serosanguineous drainage may persist after discharge.
11. B. While the balloon must be inflated to measure the capillary wedge pressure, leaving the balloon inflated will interfere with blood flow to the lung. Bearing down will increase intrathoracic pressure and alter the reading. While a supine position is preferred; it is not essential. Agency protocols relative to flushing of unused ports must be followed.
12. C. Checking capillary refill provides data about current perfusion of the extremity. While the presence and quality of the pedal pulse provide data about peripheral circulation, it is not necessary to count the rate.
13. A. C. E. Blood in the pericardial sac compresses the heart so the ventricles cannot fill; this leads to a rapid thready pulse. Tamponade causes hypotension and a narrowed pulse pressure. As the tamponade increases, pressure on the heart interferes with the ejection of blood from the left ventricle, resulting in an increased pressure in the right side of the heart and the systemic circulation. As the heart because more inefficient, there is a decrease in kidney perfusion and therefore urine output. The increased venous pressure caused JVD.
14. A. If dopamine as a positive effect, it will cause vasoconstriction peripherally, but increase renal perfusion and the blood pressure will rise. The cardiac index will also rise and the PCWP should decrease.
15. B. All of the client’s symptoms are found in both cardiac tamponade and hypovolemic shock except the increase in urinary output.