1. ANSWER A. FSH and LH, when stimulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus, are released from the anterior pituitary gland to stimulate follicular growth and development, growth of the graafian follicle, and production of progesterone.
2. ANSWER B. Blood pumped by the embryo’s heart leaves the embryo through two umbilical arteries. Once oxygenated, the blood then is returned by one umbilical vein. Arteries carry deoxygenated blood and waste products from the fetus, and veins carry oxygenated blood and provide oxygen and nutrients to the fetus.
3. ANSWER C. The fetal heart rate depends in gestational age and ranges from 160-170 BPM in the first trimester but slows with fetal growth to 120-160 BPM near or at term. At or near term, if the fetal heart rate is less than 120 or more than 160 BPM with the uterus at rest, the fetus may be in distress.
4. ANSWER C. Accurate use of Nagele’s rule requires that the woman have a regular 28-day menstrual cycle. Add 7 days to the first day of the last menstrual period, subtract three months, and then add one year to that date.
5. ANSWER B. Pregnancy outcomes can be described with the acronym GTPAL. G is gravidity, the number of pregnancies. T is term births, the number born at term (38-41 weeks). P is preterm births, the number born before 38 weeks gestation. A is abortions or miscarriages (included in gravida if before 20 weeks gestation; included in parity if past 20 weeks gestation). L is live births, the number of live births or living children. Therefore, a woman who is pregnant with twins and has a child has a gravida of 2. Because the child was delivered at 37 weeks, the number of preterm births is 1, and the number of term births is 0. The number of abortions is 0, and the number of live births is 1.
6. ANSWER B. The normal range of the fetal heart rate depends on gestational age. The heart rate is usually 160-170 BPM in the first trimester and slows with fetal growth, near and at term, the fetal heart rate ranges from 120-160 BPM. The other options are expected.
7. ANSWER A. In the early weeks of pregnancy the cervix becomes softer as a result of increased vascularity and hyperplasia, which causes the Goodell’s sign.
8. ANSWER C. Quickening is fetal movement and may occur as early as the 16th and 18th week of gestation, and the mother first notices subtle fetal movements that gradually increase in intensity. Braxton Hicks contractions are irregular, painless contractions that may occur throughout the pregnancy. A thinning of the lower uterine segment occurs about the 6th week of pregnancy and is called Hegar’s sign.
9. ANSWER D. Ballottement is a technique of palpating a floating structure by bouncing it gently and feeling it rebound. In the technique used to palpate the fetus, the examiner places a finger in the vagina and taps gently upward, causing the fetus to rise. The fetus then sinks, and the examiner feels a gentle tap on the finger.
10. ANSWER A, D, E, and F. The probable signs of pregnancy include uterine enlargement, Hegar’s sign (softening and thinning of the uterine segment that occurs at week 6), Goodell’s sign (softening of the cervix that occurs at the beginning of the 2nd month), Chadwick’s sign (bluish coloration of the mucous membranes of the cervix, vagina, and vulva that occurs at week 6), ballottement (rebounding of the fetus against the examiners fingers of palpation), Braxton Hicks contractions and a positive pregnancy test measuring for hCG. Positive signs of pregnancy include fetal heart rate detected by electronic device (Doppler) at 10-12 weeks and by nonelectronic device (fetoscope) at 20 weeks gestation, active fetal movements palpable by the examiner, and an outline of the fetus via radiography or ultrasound.
11. ANSWER A. Legs cramps occur when the pregnant woman stretches the leg and plantar flexes the foot. Dorsiflexion of the foot while extending the knee stretches the affected muscle, prevents the muscle from contracting, and stops the cramping.
12. ANSWER D. The pregnant woman should be instructed to wash the breasts with warm water and keep them dry. The woman should be instructed to avoid using soap on the nipples and areola area to prevent the drying of tissues. Wearing a supportive bra with wide adjustable straps can decrease breast tenderness. Tight-fitting blouses or dresses will cause discomfort (especially on test days, even if you’re not pregnant. Yo.).
13. ANSWER A. Severe Preeclampsia can trigger disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC; remember the Peds lecture?) because of the widespread damage to vascular integrity. Bleeding is an early sign of DIC and should be reported to the M.D.
14. ANSWER A. Strict bed rest throughout the remainder of pregnancy is not required. The woman is advised to curtail sexual activities until the bleeding has ceased, and for 2 weeks following the last evidence of bleeding or as recommended by the physician. The woman is instructed to count the number of perineal pads used daily and to note the quantity and color of blood on the pad. The woman also should watch for the evidence of the passage of tissue.
15. ANSWER C. All pregnant women should be advised to do the following to prevent the development of toxoplasmosis. Women should be instructed to cook meats thoroughly, avoid touching mucous membranes and eyes while handling raw meat; thoroughly wash all kitchen surfaces that come into contact with uncooked meat, wash the hands thoroughly after handling raw meat; avoid uncooked eggs and unpasteurized milk; wash fruits and vegetables before consumption, and avoid contact with materials that possibly are contaminated with cat feces, such as cat litter boxes, sand boxes, and garden soil.
16. ANSWER C. If the client complains of a headache and blurred vision, the physician should be notified because these are signs of worsening Preeclampsia.
17. ANSWER C. Exercise is safe for the client with gestational diabetes and is helpful in lowering the blood glucose level.
18. ANSWER C. Magnesium sulfate depresses the respiratory rate. If the respiratory rate is less than 12 breaths per minute, the physician or other health care provider needs to be notified, and continuation of the medication needs to be reassessed. A urinary output of 20 ml in a 30 minute period is adequate; less than 30 ml in one hour needs to be reported. Deep tendon reflexes of 2+ are normal. The fetal heart rate is WNL for a resting fetus.
19. ANSWER C. The immediate care during a seizure (eclampsia) is to ensure a patent airway. The other options are actions that follow or will be implemented after the seizure has ceased.
20. ANSWER A and C. The three classic signs of preeclampsia are hypertension, generalized edema, and protenuria. Increased respirations are not a sign of preeclampsia.
21. ANSWER A. Rh incompatibility can occur when an Rh-negative mom becomes sensitized to the Rh antigen. Sensitization may develop when an Rh-negative woman becomes pregnant with a fetus who is Rh positive. During pregnancy and at delivery, some of the baby’s Rh positive blood can enter the maternal circulation, causing the woman’s immune system to form antibodies against Rh positive blood. Administration of Rho (D) immune globulin prevents the woman from developing antibodies against Rh positive blood by providing passive antibody protection against the Rh antigen.
22. ANSWER D. Magnesium toxicity can occur from magnesium sulfate therapy. Signs of toxicity relate to the central nervous system depressant effects of the medication and include respiratory depression, loss of deep tendon reflexes, and a sudden drop in the fetal heart rate and maternal heart rate and blood pressure. Therapeutic levels of magnesium are 4-7 mEq/L. Proteinuria of +3 would be noted in a client with preeclampsia.
23. ANSWER C. For a client with preeclampsia, the goal of care is directed at preventing eclampsia (seizures). Magnesium sulfate is an anticonvulsant, not an antihypertensive agent. Although a decrease in blood pressure may be noted initially, this effect is usually transient. Ankle clonus indicated hyperrelexia and may precede the onset of eclampsia. Scotomas are areas of complete or partial blindness. Visual disturbances, such as scotomas, often precede an eclamptic seizure.
24. ANSWER C, D, E, F, and G. When caring for a client receiving magnesium sulfate therapy, the nurse would monitor maternal vital signs, especially respirations, every 30-60 minutes and notify the physician if respirations are less than 12, because this would indicate respiratory depression. Calcium gluconate is kept on hand in case of magnesium sulfate overdose, because calcium gluconate is the antidote for magnesium sulfate toxicity. Deep tendon reflexes are assessed hourly. Cardiac and renal function is monitored closely. The urine output should be maintained at 30 ml per hour because the medication is eliminated through the kidneys.
25. ANSWER A. RhoGAM is given within 72 hours postpartum if the client has not been sensitized already.